136/150: Poach Eggs Not Whitefish

Animalia: Chordata: Actinopterygii: Salmoniformes: Salmonidae: Coregonus: Coregonus huntsmani (W. B. Scott, 1987)

The Atlantic whitefish (Coregonus huntsmani), is native to Nova Scotia, Canada residing in the Tusket River and Petite Riviere. If you see this species, consider yourself lucky. In 1970, under the federal Fisheries Act, the fishing for the species was prohibited. Habitat loss from the damming of the Tusket River contributed to its decline as well as introduced fish species. To this day, it is still considered endangered. The Atlantic whitefish has silver coloured sides and a darkish blue-green back, spawns in freshwater and lives out most of its life in the sea. Its diet consists of amphipods, periwinkles and marine worms. #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

The Atlantic whitefish (Coregonus huntsmani), an endangered species. Photo Credit: Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada goo.gl/x8k8Ca
Range of the Atlantic whitefish. Photo Credit: Government of Canada goo.gl/GZy7UT

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: BCFB943-07

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Atlantic Whitefish

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAI9334

135/150: This tiny mite can cause massive damage!

Animalia: Arthropoda: Arachnida: Trombidiformes: Tetranycinae: Tetranychinae: Tetranychus: Tetranychus urticae (C. L. Kock, 1836)

The two-spotted spider mite is of economic importance as it is a common pest worldwide.  It has been found to feed on more than 1,100 different species of plants! Including important crops such as maize, soy, citrus, apples, tomatoes, strawberries, and peppers. By sucking the cell contents from leaves, the mite leaves small lesions that in large numbers will reduce the photosynthetic capabilities of plants. It is highly resistant to pesticides so researchers sequenced its entire genome in 2011 to understand its biology to create more effective pesticides.

These mites are barely visible to the naked eye at 0.4 mm long and comes in many colours including brown, orange, and green. It is named for the two spots located symmetrically on each side of its back. These spots are actually the buildup of body waste that can be seen through the mite’s transparent body wall. Like all spider mites, the two-spotted variety can spin fine strands of web. #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

Specimen BIOUG08419-E08 – Wellington County, Guelph, Ontario, Canada – 30-May-2013. Photo Credit: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics
Web of the spider mite Tetranycus urticae. Photo Credit: University of Florida goo.gl/6jokcW
Colorized scanning electron microscope image of Tetranychus urticae. Photo Credit: Eric Erbe and Chris Pooley goo.gl/6jokcW
Eggs of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Photo Credit: Gilles San Martin goo.gl/65c6Cm

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: MBIOC060-13

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Two-spotted spider mite

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:ABY3244

134/150: A soaring hawk of the prairies

Animalia: Chordata: Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae: Buteo: Buteo regalis (Gray, 1844)

The Ferruginous Hawk is the largest hawk native to North America and is a specialist predator, feeding on specific rodent species. It is classified as Threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) due to the loss and fragmentation of its breeding habitat, the prairies of Canada. With an estimated population of 1200 breeding pairs, efforts are being made to reduce habitat loss.

Hawk refers to diurnal (active by day) predatory birds. Hawks are considered among the most intelligent birds, as having one of the best eyesight in the animal kingdom (eight times better than us!). They can see ultra-violet light and can detect polarized light or magnetic fields. Hawks can reach diving speeds of over 240 km an hour and undertake long migrations, travelling thousands of miles a year. Hawk couples are monogamous, usually mating for life.  #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

The Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis). Photo Credit: Tony Hisgett goo.gl/LbKqFD
The Ferruginous Hawk, looking fierce. Photo Credit: Tim Sträter goo.gl/2NcyZY
A Ferruginous Hawk perched on a fence. Photo Credit: Dick Daniels goo.gl/iGWyAn
A Ferruginous Hawk soaring through the sky. Photo Credit: Shravans14 goo.gl/e9CWvc

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: KBNA789-04

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Ferruginous Hawk

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:ABZ1637

133/150: Arctic Isopods – Cold and Calculated

Animalia: Arthropoda: Malacostraca: Isopoda: Arcturidae: Arcturus baffini (Sabine, 1824)

Arctic isopods are unique crustaceans living in the Arctic Ocean, with over 50 species. Most are small, ranging from 0.5-1.5 cm in length, but some, like Arcturus baffini, can grow beyond 10 cm! Making them large organisms in a cold environment. These isopods are poor swimmers, instead they crawl along the ocean floor with their legs. Most are scavengers while others are known to be parasitic. They often burrow in sediments creating small underwater tunnels. Most immature arctic isopods are held in a specialized chamber in their mother until they are developed enough to leave. The immature Arcturus baffini are different in that they will hold onto their mother’s antennae until they reach maturity. #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

Specimen HLC-26100–Resolute Nunavut, Canada – 01-Jan-2000. Photo Credit: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics
Illustration of Arcturus baffini. Photo Credit: Taina Litwak goo.gl/p5PtLd
Arcturus baffini with its large feeling antennae extended. Photo Credit: Kathy Conlan goo.gl/Ku8CNk

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: NNMC238-08

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Arctic isopod

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAJ7844

132/150: What’s green, marine and a potential killing machine? Sea Lettuce!

Plantae: Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulvales: Ulvaceae: Ulva: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753

Although it resembles terrestrial salad greens, Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) is a species of aquatic green algae. The bright green ruffled edge “leaves” are composed of 2 layers of cells, found free floating or attached to surfaces in areas with exposed rocks and tide pools. Ulva lactuca is edible, and can be added to salads or soups, or used in medicine. However, this nutritious chlorophyte has a dark side. When large concentrations of sea lettuce die, the rotting algae uses up large amounts of oxygen, potentially suffocating other aquatic species (eutrophication). When large quantities of the rotting algae washes up on shore, it produces toxic hydrogen sulfide gas, which can be a public safety risk. Although it can be tolerated in low doses, short term high exposure to fumes by unlucky beachgoers has led to documented cases of collapse, loss of breathing and even death! Watch out for killer lettuce! #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

The humble sea lettuce, a type of algae. Photo Credit: H. Krisp goo.gl/4sX6HV
Sea lettuce washed up on a beach. Photo Credit: Ecomare/Oscar Bos goo.gl/fr9UUZ
A SEA of Sea Lettuce! Photo Credit: Ria Tan goo.gl/TPWMwZ

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: ULVA558-09

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Sea lettuce

131/150: What has a lion’s mane and lives under the sea? A jellyfish!

Animalia: Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae: Cyaneidae: Cyanea: Cyanea capillata (Linnaeus, 1758)

The Lion’s Mane jellyfish is the largest species of jellyfish in the world. The largest specimen was found in 1870 at Massachusetts Bay, United States with a bell diameter of 2.3 meters and tentacles reaching 37 meters, which is longer than the length of a blue whale! These magnificent creatures are known to like cold temperatures and live around northern hemisphere in the north Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans. Due to their large size, certain fish and shrimp species find protection and shelter from their predators by hiding around the jellyfish’s body. As for their diet, the lion’s mane jellyfish’s favourites are zooplankton, moon jellies and ctenophores. They live a pelagic lifestyle, roaming around open seas and often fall to prey to seabirds, ocean sunfish and other jellyfish species. In fact, the leatherback sea turtle feeds almost entirely on this species. Uhm, yum? #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

Small, juvenile lion’s mane jellyfish appear in tan and orange colours, but as they get older, they turn into a reddish or purplish shade. Photo Credit: Brian Gratwicke goo.gl/DkBexQ
The bell of the lion’s mane jellyfish can reach a diameter of 2 meters! Photo Credit: Arnstein Rønning goo.gl/f9HLYB
Each tentacle cluster of a lion’s mane jellyfish can have up to 100 tentacles! Photo Credit: Derek Keats goo.gl/CA1KK3

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: CCSMA230-10

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Lion's mane jellyfish

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAF9673

130/150: They may not have wings, but boy can they jump!

Animalia: Arthropoda: Insecta: Archaeognatha: Machilidae: Petrobiinae: Pedetontus: Pedetontus submutans (Silvestri, 1911)

The jumping bristletails belong to the order Archaeognatha. These small insects exhibit three pronged tails, an arched back, and two compound eyes. Its body is covered in detached scales making it very hard for predators to grip. Living in diverse habitats from moist shorelines to dry deserts, the jumping bristletails are well adapted for many environments having evolved eversible moisture absorbing vesicles. They are known for their quick movements and ability to jump over 25 cm at a time. These fast moving hexapods don’t even have to meet their mates. Instead the males leave their spermatophore out in the open, attaching silken threads for the females to find and follow. #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

Specimen 10BBSIO-0199 – Willowbrae Trail, Pacific Rim NP, British Columbia – 03-Jul-2010 -Free Hand. Photo Credit: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics
Jumping Bristletail, Pedetontus submutans, on the tip of an index finger. Photo Credit: Keith Roragen goo.gl/cG9aDB
Jumping Bristletail, Pedetontus submutans, in a mossy forest environment. Photo Credit: Shipher Wu goo.gl/fqEvSF

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: SIOCA199-10

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Jumping bristletail

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAV1528




129/150: Brittle stars know how to get around!

Animalia: Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophiurida: Ophiactidae: Ophiopholis: Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767)

The daisy or crevice brittle star, Ophiopholis aculeata, is one of many species of brittle stars that live in Canadian waters. A circumpolar species, these echinoderms are recognizable by their long, thin arms, quite distinct from their central plate. Unlike other sea stars, brittle stars do not use their tube feet for locomotion, but instead use wriggling movements of their whole arms to move. Despite being a radially symmetrical animal, brittle star locomotion is much like a bilaterally symmetrical animal – choosing a lead arm and then using paired movements of their other arms (almost like rowing) to move themselves. These arms are connected to the central disc with a ball and socket type joint – much like our shoulders, giving brittle stars an incredible amount of flexibility! #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

Specimen HUNT0053 – St. Andrews, New Brunswick – 6-Aug-2008
A daisy star, photographed in a tidepool in New Hampshire. Photo Credit: Ken-ichi Ueda goo.gl/TFimJz
Specimen image of Ophiopholis aculeata taken in 1903 by Arnold, Augusta Foote. Photo Credit: Freshwater and Marine Image Bank goo.gl/U5qr2B

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: DSPEC124-07

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Brittle sea star

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAA9003

128/150: The amazingly acrobatic eyed click beetle!

Animalia: Arthropoda: Insecta: Coleoptera: Elateridae: Agrypninae: Alaus: Alaus oculatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Alaus oculatus belongs to the family Elateridae, a group commonly known as click beetles. These insects get their name from the unique clicking mechanism they all share. When one of these beetles finds itself upside down, it will arch so only the tip of its head and abdomen touch the ground, then quickly straighten itself. As it does this, a spine on their underside snaps into a groove on the thorax, launching the beetle into a flip and causing the distinctive clicking noise.

The eyed click beetle can be found throughout the deciduous forests and woodlands of North and Central America. The beetles are named for the spots on their back, which are commonly believed to ward off predators. While the adults of this species feed only on nectar, the larvae are carnivorous, feeding on other beetle larvae they find residing in rotting logs. There are 11 eyed click beetles with barcodes on BOLD. #Canada150 #Biodiversity150

Specimen 10BBCOL-0567 – Texas, United States – 03-Apr-2010 – UV Light Trap. Photo Credit: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics
An eyed click beetle crawling on a log. Photo Credit: Henry Hartley goo.gl/UxhmBu

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: TTCFW882-08

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Eyed click beetle

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAH0252

127/150: Happy Halloween! The Masked Hunter wears a costume of disguise!

Animalia: Arthropoda: Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae: Reduvius: Reduvius personatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

The Masked Hunter is a true bug belonging to the family Reduviidae, also known as the Assassin Bugs. In accordance to their dangerous sounding common name they are known to have a painful bite, but they are relatively harmless towards humans as they don’t feed on blood or transmit diseases. The nymphs of this species are very interesting because they exude a sticky substance from “head to toe” allowing them to collect dust, lint and other particles. This natural camouflage enables them to ambush their unsuspecting prey. The next time you see a dust bunny floating around your house take a closer look as it may be a Masked Hunter in disguise! #Canada150 #Biodiversity150 #Halloween

Specimen CNC#HEM300372 – Osoyoos, British Columbia – 20-Jun-2005. Photo Credit: CNC/BIO Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics
A Masked Hunter nymph covered in sand as its costume for Halloween! Photo Credit: Chiswick Chap goo.gl/6FKrhN
Close-up view of the Masked Hunters piercing mouthparts. Photo Credit: Thomas Pieper goo.gl/H5PXkw

Here’s the barcode sequence information for this species:

Process ID: HMCN586-09

nucleotide sequence


amino acid sequence


Visual representation of DNA barcode sequence for Masked Hunter Bug

Learn more about it’s BIN (Barcode Index Number): BOLD:AAH2979